QUALITY CONTROL TESTS
QUALITY CONTROL TESTS
QUALITY CONTROL AND TESTING PROCEDURES :--
- Objectives :-
- To provide set or working principles to the field engineers.
- To explain the criteria and procedures to be adopted in the implementation of the project.
- To enumerate the duties, power and responsibilities of the field engineers
- To provide guidance in assuring and controlling the quality of work.
- To provide guidance to test the quality of materials and ensure quality.
- To ensure uniformity and consistency in regulatory, mandatory and routine activities in the project implementation.
Tests on Soil:
1. Determination of Atterberg limits
2. Determination of Proctor Density.
3. Determination of field density of soil ( Sand Replacement Method)
4. Determination of field density of soil ( Core cutter Method)
5. Determination of CBR of soil in the field (CBR test)
6. Determination of CBR of soil in the laboratory.
7. CBR with Dynamic core penetration method.
8. Nomograph for Computing soaked CBR value from sieve analysis data.
Tests on Coarse Aggregate:-
1. Determination of Gradation of Aggregate (Sieve analysis)
2. Determination of Aggregate Impact Value
3. Determination of Flakiness Index
4. Determination of Elongation Index.
Tests on Bituminous Construction :-
1. Determination of Binder Content ( Bitumen Extraction Test)
2. Determination of Penetration value of Bitumen
Tests on Cement & Concrete:-
1. Normal consistency, Initial Setting & Final Setting time of Cement ( VICAT’s
2. Compressive strength of concrete.
Determination of Atterberg Limits of Soil :-
Liquid Limit (LL): It is the water content corresponding to the boundary between
liquid and plastic states of soil.
1. Take 120 gms of soil IS 425 micron sieve.
2. Mix it with distilled water from a paste.
3. Place a portion of the paste in the cup of apparatus
4. Level the specimen to half the cup
5. Cut the paste with the standard grooving tool along the centre line.
6. Start rotating the handle at 2 revolutions per second
7. Count number of blows till two parts of sample come into contact at
the bottom of the grove ( along a distance of 10mm)
8. Record the number of blows and determine the moisture content of
the sample taken near the closed groove.
9. Repeat the test by changing the moisture content so that number of
blows to close the grove is from 35 to 10
10. Plot a graph between log ( no. of blows) and moisture content and fit a
11. Read the moisture content corresponding to the 25 number of blows
from the graph. This gives the liquid limit of the soil.
Compaction Test :-
1 Weight of the mould Wm gm
2 Weight of Mould + Compacted soil W gm
3 Volume of Mould Vm cc
4 Wet Density Yw= ( W- Wm)/Vm
5 Weight of the moisture container W1 gm
6 Wright of the container + Wet soil W2 gm
7 Weight of the container + Dry soil W3 gm
8 Moisture content (W%) W%=(W2- W3)/ ( W3-W1) * 100
9 Dry Density (Yd) Yd= (Yw)/ (1+w/100)
Determination of Field Density of Soil :--
(Sand Replacement Method)
1. The pouring cylinder shall be filled so that the level of the sand in the cylinder
is within about10mm of the top. Its total initial weight ( W1) shall be found and
shall be maintained constant throughout the tests for which the calibration is
used. Volume of sand equivalent to that of the excavated hole in the soil (or
equal to that of the calibration container) shall be allowed to run out of the
cylinder. The shutter on the pouring cylinder shall then be closed and the
cylinder placed on a plane surface such as the glass plate.
2. The shutter on the pouring cylinder shall be opened and sand allowed to run
out. When no further movement of sand takes place in the cylinder, the
shutter shall be closed and the cylinder moved carefully.
3. The sand that has filled the cone of the pouring cylinder ( that is the sand that
is left on the plane surface ) shall be collected and weighed to the nearest
gram repeated at least three times and the mean weight ( W2) taken.
4. The internal volume (V) in cc of the calibrating container may be calculated
from its internal dimensions.
5. The pouring cylinder shall be placed concentrically on the top of the
calibrating container after being filled to the constant weight (W1). The
shutters on the pouring cylinder shall be closed during this operation. The
shutters shall be opened and sand allowed to run out. When no further
movement of sand takes place , the shutter shall be closed. The pouring
cylinder shall be removed and weighted to the nearest gram.
6. These measurements shall be repeated at least three times and the mean
weight ( W3) taken.
7. A flat area approximately 45cm square of the soil to be tested shall be
exposed and trimmed down to a level surface, preferably with the aid of the
8. A round hole approximately 10cm dia and the depth of the layer to be tested
upto a maximum of 10 cm depth shall be excavated in the soil. No loose
material shall be left in the hole. The metal tray with a central hole shall be
laid on the prepared surface of the soil with the hole over the portion of the
soil to be tested – the hole in the soil shall be then be excavated using the
hole in the tray as a patter. This tray shall be removed before the pouring
cylinder is placed in a position over the excavated hole. The excavated soil
shall be carefully collected and weighed to the nearest gram.
9. The moisture content of (W) of the excavated soil shall be determined by
taking representative sample of soil. Alternatively, the whole of the excavated
soil may be dried and weighted(Wd)
10. The pouring cylinder filled to the constant weigh (W1) shall be placed so that
the base of the cylinder covers the hole concentrically, the shutters on the
pouring cylinder shall be closed during this operation. The shutter shall then
be opened and sand allowed to run out into the hole.
11. The pouring cylinder and surrounding area shall not be vibrated during this
period. When no further movement of sand takes place, the shutter shall be
closed. The cylinder shall be removed and weighed to the nearest gram( W4)
Note: It is necessary to make a number of repeated determinations say 4 to 5
and to average the results, since the dry density of the soil varies appreciably
from point to point.
12. The weight of sand (Wa) in gm required to fill the calibrating container shall
be calculated from the following formula
Wa= W1- W2- W3 where
W1= Weight of pouring cylinder and sand before pouring into calibrating
cylinder in gms
W2= Mean weight of sand in cone in gm.
W3= Mean weight of cylinder with residual sand after pouring into calibrating
cylinder and cone in gms.
13. The bulk density of the sand Ys in ( gm/cc) shall be calculated from the
formula: Ys= Wa/V, where V= Volume of calibrating cylinder in cc
14. The weight of sand (Wb) in gm required to fill the excavated hole shall be
calculated from the following formula:
Wb= W1- W4- W2, Where
W1= Weight of cylinder and sand before pouring into the hole in gm
W2= Mean weight of sand in cone in gm.
W4= Weight of cylinder and sand after pouring into hole and cone in gm
15. The bulk density of the soil Yb shall be calculated from the following formula
Yb= (Ww/Wb)* Ys gm/cc, where
Ww= Weight of natural soil excavated in gm.
Wb= Weight of sand required to fill the hole in gm.
Ys= Bulk density of sand.
16. The density of the dry soil Yb shall be calculated from the formula
Yd= (Ww/Wb) * Ys gm/cc Or ( 100/(100+W)) * Yb gm/cc, where
W= Moisture content of the soil in percent.
Wd= Weight of dry soil from the hole in gm and
Wb= Weight of sand required to fill the hole in gm
17. The following values shall be replaced
a) Dry density of soil in gm/cc
b) Moisture content of the soil in percent.
The permissible limit of the field density of observed sample should be 95% of the
field density in the case of embankments and 97% in the case of sub-grade.
Determination of Aggregate Impact Value :-
1. Aggregate passing through 12.5mm IS sieve and retained on 10mm sieve is
filled in the cylindrical measure in 3 layers by tamping each layer by 25 blows.
Determine the net weight of aggregate in the measure (W1)
2. Transfer the sample from the measure to the cup of the aggregate impact
testing machine and compact it by tamping 25 times.
3. The hammer is raised to height of 38cm above the upper surface of the
aggregate in the cup and is allowed to fall freely on the specimen.
4. After subjecting the test specimen to 15 blows, the crushed aggregate is
sieved on IS 2.36mm sieve.
5. Weight the fraction passing through IS 2.36mm sieve ( W2)
6. Aggregate impact value= W2/W1 * 100
Determination of Elongation Index :-
1. The sample is sieved through IS sieve 63,53,40,31.5,25,20,16,12.5,10
2 Minimum 200 pieces if each fraction to be tested are taken and weighed
3. Separate the elongated material by using the standard elongation gauge by
passing each pieces of aggregates from each fraction in lengthwise .
4. Take the weight of the elongated material which retained on gauge (W gm)
5. Elongation Index ( EI)= Weight of material retained on gauge *100
Determination of Binder Content :--
1. A representative sample of 150mm*150mm BT flake is to be exactly weighed
and placed in the bowl of the extraction apparatus.
2. Cover the sample with commercial grade benzene.
3. The mixture is allowed to stand for about one hour before starting the
4. The dried filtering is weighed and then fitted around edge of the bowl and the
cover of the bowl is clamped tightly.
5. A beaker is placed under the drain to collect the extract.
6. The machine is revolved and the speed is maintained till the solvent ceases
to flow from the drain.
7. The machine is allowed to stop and 200ml of benzene is added to the bowl
and the procedure is repeated.
9. Filter the extract through a filter paper.
10. Dry the filter paper in the oven and determined the weight of fines in the
Compressive Strength of Concrete :--
1. Fill the mould with freshly mixed concrete in 3 equal layers, compact it with
tamping bar giving 35 bowls in each layer uniformly and finally level off with
the trowel. Mark the date of casting cube and the identification of member.
2. Keep the specimen in moist air of atleast 90% relative humidity and at a temp.
of 27 plus or minus 2 degree Celsius for 24 hours. Alternatively, cover the
moulds with wet gunny bags.
3. After specified time period is over remove the specimen from the mould and
submerge it in clean fresh water, maintained at a temp. of 27 + 20
the cube is ready for test.
4. Take out the cube after for 3,7,14,24,28 days as required and wipe off the
surface water with cloth.
5. Note down the dimensions and weigh the cube and then place it in the
compression testing machine. Such that the four corners are enclosed with
the circle of the rim.
6. Apply the load on the cube at the rate of 130 to 140 kg/sq.cm/Min. till it fails
record the maximum load applied.
7. The compressive strength is calculated in N/ sq. mm by dividing maximum
low takes in Newtons by the cross sectional area of the cube calculated from
the mean dimension of the section.
8. Inspect the type of failure and record it.
Initial & Final Setting Of Cement
(Vicat apparatus IS:5513-1969) --
> Take 350 gms of cement, mix with 0.85 times of water to give a standard
> Start a stop watch at the instant when the water is added to the cement.
> Fill the standard mould with the cement paste completely and level the top
surface with a trowel.
> The cement block thus prepared is the test block.
Initial Setting time:--
> Place the test block confined in the mould under the rod bearing initial setting
needle. Lower the needle gently in contact with the surface of the test block
and quickly release allowing it to penetrate into the test block.
> Repeat this procedure until the needle fails to pierce the block for 5+ 0.5mm
measured from the bottom of the mould.
> The total time elapsed shall be initial setting time._
Final Setting time:
> Replace the needle of the vicats apparatus with an annular ring.
> Repeat the procedure of lowering the needle and the annular ring into the test
block to penetrate.
> After some time the needle makes an impression on the surface of the test
block but the ring fails to do so.
> The time elapsed from the time of adding water to the cement till the above
state shall be the final setting time.
Initial Setting time (minimum) : 30 minutes
Final Setting time (maximum) : 600 minutes
THANK'S & REGARDS : KIRAN SOLANKI